3D Printing of Graphene AerogelsAuthor: ChemistryViews.org
Published: 11 February 2016
3D Systems Launches ProX DMP 320 for High Precision, High Throughput Direct Metal Printing
Leverages expertise in high volume metal additive manufacturing
Exchangeable print modules increase application versatility and productivity
Centralized maintenance management and serial manufacturing workflow support create operating cost advantages
Monday, January 4, 2016 - 09:00
GE using 3-D printing to make jet parts.
The first GE jet engine that used a 3-D-printed part is the GE90. In February 2015, the Federal Aviation Administration approved GE’s design modification to the housing that holds the T25 sensor on GE’s 90-94B engine. The sensor takes temperature and pressure measurements for the engine’s control system. GE found that ice buildup on the traditionally-manufactured housing containing the sensor affecting the compressor’s long-term durability.
The company decided to redesign the sensor housing entirely and make it using Additive manufacturing.
The nozzles was machined from 20 separate parts. Now each nozzle is one solid part, assembled by layering powdered metal melted and fused together with lasers. With 19 fuel nozzles per engine, it’s a substantial difference that helps to streamline the manufacturing and assembly process.
Now GE is in the process of retrofitting the new T25 sensor housings on 400 in-service 90-94B engines, which started commercial service in 1995 and were built for the Boeing 777 aircraft.
NIST Special Publication 1176
Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Additive Manufacturing
A Literature Review and Discussion
If additive manufacturing has a saturation level between 5 % and 35 % of the relevant sectors, it is forecasted that it might reach 50 % of market potential between 2031 and 2038, while reaching near 100 % between 2058 and 2065. The industry would reach $50 billion between 2029 and 2031, while reaching $100 billion between 2031 and 2044.11
The total global revenue from additive manufacturing system sales was $502.5 million with U.S. revenue estimated at $323.6 million.
The additive systems are categorized into various different processes.
ASTM International Committee F42.91 on Additive Manufacturing Technologies has developed standard terminologies.
The following are the categories and their definitions from the ASTM F2792 standard:
Binder Jetting: This process uses liquid bonding agent deposited using an inkjet-print head to join powder materials in a powder bed.
Directed Energy Deposition: This process utilizes thermal energy, typically from a laser, to fuse materials by melting them as they are deposited.
Material Extrusion: These machines push material, typically a thermoplastic filament, through a nozzle onto a platform that moves in horizontal and vertical directions.
Material Jetting: This process, typically, utilizes a moving inkjet-print head to deposit material across a build area.
Powder Bed Fusion: This process uses thermal energy from a laser or electron beam to selectively fuse powder in a powder bed.
Sheet Lamination: This process uses sheets of material bonded to form a three-dimensional object.
Vat Photopolymerization: These machines selectively cure a liquid photopolymer in a vat using light.
Additive Manufacturing Research and Education
An NSF Additive Manufacturing Workshop Report July 11 and 12, 2013
updated 10 Mar 2016, 18 Feb 2016