Sunday, June 21, 2015

Pulverized Coal Boiler Design - Patents

Dense-phase swirl pulverized coal burner
EP 2597367 A1
Shanghai Boiler Works, Ltd.

Compact pulverized coal burner
US 8196531 B2
Siemens Aktiengesellschaft

Pulverized coal burner
US 20100058961 A1
Slagging is prevented from occurring in a pulverized coal burner.
Ihi Corporation

Sunday, June 14, 2015

Product Design Methods and Practices - Henry W. Stoll - Book Information

Product Design Methods and Practices

Henry W. Stoll
CRC Press, Jun 1, 1999 - 400 pages

"Focuses on functional, aesthetically pleasing, mechanically reliable, and easily made products that improve profitability for manufacturers and provide long-term satisfaction for customers. Offers concrete, practical insight immediately applicable to new product design and development projects."

Table of Contents

Considerations of good design: the product design environment; design for profitability; improving early design decisions; principles of good design; total cost reduction; design process improvement.

Conceptual design: customer focused concept design; the rational building block method; formal concept selection methods; model-driven design.

Design for efficient manufacture: process-driven design; part elimination strategies; assembly design; tolerance design; component design; manufacturability improvement method. total cost reduction: elimination and simplification strategies; standardization and rationalization; internal standard components.

Design for quality: design improvement methods; failure mode and effects analysis; design review checklist; references.

Thursday, June 11, 2015

Ultra-Supercritical Coal Power Plants: Materials, Technologies and Optimisation - Dongke Zhang - Book Information 2013

Ultra-Supercritical Coal Power Plants
Materials, Technologies and Optimisation

Edited by Dongke Zhang

Introduction to advanced and ultra-supercritical fossil fuel power plants.

Part 1
Operating environments, materials and engineering of ultra-supercritical coal power plants;
Impacts of steam conditions on plant materials and operation in ultra-supercritical coal power plants; Fuel considerations and burner design for ultra-supercritical power plants;
Materials for boilers operating under supercritical steam conditions;
Boiler design for ultra-supercritical coal power plants.

Part 2
Improving ultra-supercritical coal power plant performance:
Ash fouling, deposition and slagging in ultra-supercritical coal power plants;
Emissions from ultra-supercritical power plants and pollution control measures;
Estimation, management and extension of the life of ultra-supercritical power plants;
An economic and engineering analysis of a 700°C advanced ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant;
CO2 capture-ready ultra-supercritical coal power plants.

Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC)


Circulating fluidised bed combustion (CFBC) is a more recent boiler technology whose higher tolerance to fuel quality has favoured niche application in small-scale and industrial
power generation, often firing unconventional fuels such as waste coal and biomass.

The technology has attained status as a ‘cleaner’ coal technology due to more easily controllable
NOx and SOx emissions, use of CFBC at the utility scale has long been restricted by smaller boiler sizes and lower efficiencies than PCC (Pulverised coal combustion).

However, scale-up and optimisation over the last ten years have allowed CFB boilers to benefit
from economies of scale and begin to provide a viable alternative to PCC for utility power generation. The successful operation of the first supercritical CFB boiler at Lagisza power plant in Poland has proven this technology for utilities. In China,  300 MW subcritical CFB boilers have
managed to capture around 10% of the country’s rapidly growing coal capacity. Recently,
the world’s largest supercritical CFBC unit at 600 MW was commissioned.
The  ongoing construction of a multiple unit 4400 MW CFBC plant in South Korea is further evidence that this technology is becoming more viable.,-CCC/226

Wednesday, June 10, 2015

Steam Generators - Chapter 10


Design Criteria

Boiler types

Representative firetube boilers

Representative water-tube boilers

Water walls

Boiler installation



Boiler accessories and trim

Combustion equipment

Spreader stoker

Conveyor stoker

Underfeed stoker

Coal burners

Gas and oil burners

Operation and performance

Heat balance of a steam generator

Some important points under development


Design Criteria

Boiler types

Representative firetube boilers

Representative water-tube boilers

Water walls

Boiler installation


Furnace Heat Release Rates

Many types of furnace walls are in use;

1. Solid masonry

2. Air cooled masonry walls

3. Partially water cooled walls

4. Water jacketed furnace

Materials chiefly used are fire clay, silica, kaolin, diaspore, alumina, and certain products of the electric furnace.

Fire clay bricks are preferred because of their low cost whenever they give satisfactory results.

Ordinarily optical thermometers used with furnaces give wall temperatures.


Boiler accessories and trim

Combustion equipment

Spreader stoker

Conveyor stoker

Underfeed stoker

Coal burners

Functions of a burner

1. There is stability of ignition.
2. 2. Effective adjustment for control of point of ignition and resulting flame shape.
3. Complete combustion
4. Heat unformly developed in flame
5. Adequate protection against overheating, internal fires, and excessive abrasive wear.

Pulverised coal burners are classified as long-flame, short-flame (or turbulent), and tangential burners.

Cyclone burner

Gas and oil burners

Operation and performance

Operation of the boiler consists in ascertaining that equipment is following the load and functioning normally, but also in making secondary adjustments which refine the thermal efficiency beyond the normal abilities of the usual complement of automatic equipment. Automatic equipment must be watched through instruments for periodic inspections, load shifts between multiple units made, critical points for  pressure, temperature, etc., inspected from time to time and other precautionary actions taken.

In most plants, especially, central stations, part of the supervision is "taking log", ie the record of flows, pressures, material quantities, and other physical data. These are supplemented by samples of coal, water, etc., for testing in the plant laboratory. Performance of the plant as a whole, or parts of it are computed at intervals from such data. Then there is always a certain amount of maintenance and repair. In larger installations, there are specialized groups such as operations, tests, plant improvement, maintenance, repair etc.

Heat balance of a steam generator

Tuesday, June 9, 2015

Energy Flow in the Steam Power Plant - Chapter 9

Production of heat energy

Heat flow


Surface convection


Vapour Cycles for Steam Power Plants - Chapter 8

Rankine Cycle

Regenerative cycle

Heat balance

Reheating cycle

Fuels and Combustion - Chapter 5


Fuel Tests for heating value

Proximate analysis

Ash and refuse analysis


Illustrative examples in combustion

Approximations and short cuts

The Power Plant Building - Chapter 4

General Design


Power Plant Economics - Chapter 3

Effect of plant type on costs

Depreciation and replacements

The Variable Load Problem in Power Plants - Chapter 2

Ideal and realized load curves

Effect of variable load on power plant design

Power Plant Engineering - Introduction - Chapter 1

Based on Frederick Morse

Energy and Power

Drawings, specifications and correspondence

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

Intelligent Robotics and Applications: First International Conference, ICIRA October 15-17, 2008 Proceedings - Book Information

Springer Handbook of Mechanical Engineering, 2009 - Karl-Heinrich Grote, Erik K. Antonsson - Book Information

Table of contents

(18 chapters)

Introduction to Mathematics for Mechanical Engineering - Esfandiari, Ramin S. Pages 1-33

Mechanics - Yeh, Hen-Geul (et al.) - Pages 35-71

Materials Science and Engineering
Freudenberger, Jens (et al.)
Pages 73-222

Dammel, Frank (et al.)
Pages 223-294

Deters, Ludger
Pages 295-326

Design of Machine Elements
Lelikov, Oleg P.
Pages 327-522

Manufacturing Engineering
Böllinghaus, Thomas (et al.)
Pages 523-785

Measuring and Quality Control
Coello Machado, Norge I. (et al.)
Pages 787-818

Engineering Design
Breiing, Alois (et al.)
Pages 819-877

Piston Machines
Piacenti, Vince (et al.)
Pages 879-945

Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers
Mathur, Ajay
Pages 947-966

Schobeiri, Meinhard T.
Pages 967-1010

Transport Systems
Ahrens, Gritt (et al.)
Pages 1011-1147

Construction Machinery
Budny, Eugeniusz (et al.)
Pages 1149-1266

Enterprise Organization and Operation
Costanzo, Francesco (et al.)
Pages 1267-1359

Power Generation
Kothari, Dwarkadas (et al.)
Pages 1361-1419

Electrical Engineering
Bacha, Seddik (et al.)
Pages 1421-1510

General Tables
Baksi, Stanley

Sunday, April 5, 2015

Manufacturing Processes - New Developments - 2015

March 2015

32nd SCI Process Development Symposium
Churchill College, Cambridge, UK
Wednesday 25 - Friday 27 March 2015 Organised by SCI’s Fine Chemicals Group

Toyota Improving Its Design and  Manufacturing Process

Toyota revamped its manufacturing process following VWs MQB Platform process

Earlier it was one plant, one line, one model. But now  Volkswagen Chief Executive Martin Winterkorn said  recently that they  can manufacture different brands and models with great flexibility on one production line.

The system sets specifications for the basic underpinning of a vehicle and for attaching components from brakes and powertrains to engines. The system  can save up to 30% of the upfront development costs of a new vehicle. Its so-called MQB platform allows multiple models, body styles and even brands to be built in the same factory, reducing costs.

Volkswagen’s rollout of the system has hit reported profit margins. The company hasn’t detailed the investment, but it is significant amount. VW officials, however, say the expected benefits will come later, when more models are built on the system.

Hirohide Nagakawa, a Toyota engineer involved in platform development, said that in 2012, Volkswagen started to sell its first vehicles built under MQB, Toyota engineers noticed it and studied the impact carefully. They benchmarked their system against MQB and now they are modifying their system to gain benefits of Volkwagen's idea.

Additive technology is fueling a manufacturing revolution — not just speeding up an existing process but enabling engineers and designers to think of product realization in ways never before possible, with material combinations that may not have existed before. - Tom Maloney
Tom Maloney is the chief technology officer of the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology.

SABIC - Additive Manufacturing Initiatives

SABIC’s investment in several industrial and desktop printers, including the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) printer used to print the world’s first 3D-printed car, will help to facilitate process improvements in fused deposition modeling (FDM®) and other extrusion-based printing processes.

In a recent project to search for innovation and efficiencies in luminaire design and production, SABIC used predictive engineering and 3D printing technology to create an integrated thermoplastic LED luminaire, highlighting the opportunity to reduce the number of parts by 84%, the total weight by 24% and assembly time by 65%, compared to a conventional metal luminaire. SABIC was the enabler to help transform an insightful idea into a potential cost competitive solution for the fast growing LED industry.

SABIC offers a range of materials for use in additive manufacturing today including:

ULTEM™ 9085 resin most commonly used for aerospace applications.  On display in SABIC’s booth will be a 3D-printed economy class aircraft seat created as inspiration for future seat design and manufacturing methods.
LNP™ THERMOCOMP™ compounds – a carbon fiber reinforced material most recently used in the printing of Local Motors’ Strati vehicle which will be on display in SABIC’s booth.
CYCOLAC™ MG94 resin – an ABS material used by the maker community for fused filament fabrication (FFF) printing.

SABIC’s LNP™ THERMOCOMP™ carbon fiber reinforced compound was chosen for the world’s first 3D-printed vehicle, Local Motors’ Strati, at IMTS 2014 for its excellent strength-to-weight ratio and high stiffness which minimizes warping during the 3D printing process, enabling enhanced aesthetics and performance.

To inspire aircraft industry seating tiers to take a fresh look at seat design and fabrication, SABIC licensed a Studio Gavari design for a sleek and ergonomically advanced seat. The seat was printed by Stratasys, using SABIC’s ULTEM™ 9085 resin, which is highly compatible with 3D printing and meets aircraft industry and OEM-specific heat release and flame, smoke and toxicity requirements. The use of 3D printing enabled the rapid prototyping of the Studio Gavari design without the expense of tooling, resulting in an economy class seat with less than 15 components, demonstrating the potential for part consolidation and manufacturing efficiency.

Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) ranks as the world’s second largest diversified chemical company. The company is among the world’s market leaders in the production of polyethylene, polypropylene and other advanced thermoplastics, glycols, methanol and fertilizers.

SABIC recorded a net profit of SR 23.3 billion (US$ 6.2 billion) in 2014. Sales revenues for 2014 totaled SR 188.1 billion (US$ 50.2 billion). Total assets stood at SR 340 billion (US$ 90.7 billion) at the end of 2014.

Headquartered in Riyadh, SABIC was founded in 1976 when the Saudi Arabian Government decided to use the hydrocarbon gases associated with its oil production as the principal feedstock for production of chemicals, polymers and fertilizers. The Saudi Arabian Government owns 70 percent of SABIC shares with the remaining 30 percent held by private investors in Saudi Arabia and other Gulf Cooperation Council countries.

Saturday, April 4, 2015

Titanium - Minerals, Extraction, and Properties

Iron - Minerals, Extraction and Properties



Blast Furnace


Density:  7.874 g/cm3

Aluminum - Minerals, Extraction and Properties




Density:  2.7 g/cm3

2011 Research in Aluminum - Global research abstracts

Magnesium - Minerals, Extraction and Properties

Ores of Magnesium

Epsom Salt


The ore is converted to MgCl2 and subjected to electrolysis.

Posco set up a 10,000 tons a year Magnesium refining factory in Korea in 2011.


Density:  1.74 g/cm3


Research 2011 on Magnesium

Monday, March 23, 2015

SIMSCALE - Engineering Simulation Software on Demand

Case Study: Study of Vehicle Aerodynamics - Cost only 60 Euros for the simulation

Many more case studies available on the site.

You can register for free and see demo.

Sunday, March 22, 2015

ANSYS - Finite Element Analysis Tutorials

ANSYS - Lesson 1

Mahdi Farahikia upload

Are you ready to expand your FEA productivity?