Wednesday, May 7, 2014

Interesting Jigs and Fixtures - Collection

Jig being used to drill hole in rails of railways track. Why there holes are being drilled?


Tool design - PPTs

Jigs and Fixtures Applications - Collection in Engineering Trades Blog

Tuesday, April 29, 2014

Usage of Engineering Materials in Automobile Industry - Recent Trends

Car manufacturers are investigating the reduction of the weight as it will give higher mileage.

A study by Lotus Engineering concludes that a vehicle mass improvement of 38% can be achieved can be achieved at only 3% cost.  [Lotus Eng. Co., 2010]

So there is a great interesting in car manufacturers.

A detailed writeup on the recent trends in available in open publishing field.

Thursday, March 27, 2014

Manufacturing Process Selection - Prima - Swift and Booker

Swift and Booker published a book on Process Selection methodology from design for manufacturing perspective.

There created a table giving material as columns, quantity to be produced as rows and possible manufacturing processes in the cells. They also described each process with a standard format.

They provided a course page having good amount of content from their book and 10 descriptions of the processes (PRIMAs)

Wednesday, March 26, 2014

Mahindra XUV500 - The Story of First Indian Built SUV

It succeeded beyond expectations and production has to be ramped up fast to meet the demand


Video uploaded October 2013

Car/ Vehicle Manufacturing Process at Mahindra and Mahindra - Kandivali Plant

Models manufactured in the Kandivali Plant

Maxx Pikup
Bolero Maxi Truck
XL Flatbed
XL Single Cab
Bolero Pik Up
Bolero CNG Pik up

The major divisions called Product Units (P.U) in the plant under Automotive Sector are:-

Axle P.U
Body P.U
Engine P.U
Foundry P.U
Transmission P.U
Vehicle P.U


 In this department various parts of vehicle are assembled together which comes from other departments & vendors. The specialty of this department is that all the models are manufactured on a single line.

Different cells of Vehicle P.U.

Body Trim shop
Chassis line
Body drop
Test cell
FAI (Final Acceptance Inspection)
CAI (Customer Acceptance Inspection)
RFI (Ready For Inspection)
Yard Check
NOVA-C(New Overall Vehicle Audit-Customer)
RFD (Ready For Dispatch)

Manufacturing Process

The bulk of the world’s new cars come from the moving assembly line introduced by Ford, but the process is much more refined and elaborated today. Although technological advancements have enabled many improvements to modern day automobile assembly operations, the basic concept of stationary workers installing parts on a vehicle as it passes their work stations has not changed drastically over the years since it was first invented by Henry Ford in early 1900.

The modern automobile consists of about 14,000 parts and comprises several structural and mechanical systems. These include the body, containing the passenger and storage space, which sits on the chassis, or steel frame; the internal-combustion gasoline engine, which powers the car by means of a transmission; the steering and braking systems, which control the car’s motion; and the electrical system, which includes a battery, alternator, and other devices. Subsystems involve fuel, exhaust, lubrication, cooling, suspension, and tires.

The automobile body is the assembly of sheet-metal, fiberglass, plastic, or composite-material panels together with windows, doors, seats, trim and upholstery, glass, and other parts that form enclosures for the passenger, engine, and luggage compartments.

Supply Chain

To understand the car manufacturing process, you have to understand the underlying supply chain that drives domestic vehicle assembly. Today’s cars are primarily “sourced out” to produce various sub-assemblies in over 4,000 disparate locations as far away as China. This means a car’s “production” plant is an active assembly point, where skilled workers and robotic systems bring together all of the necessary loose components to create a final product on a “just-in-time” basis.


Although the bulk of an automobile is virgin steel, petroleum-based products (plastics and vinyls) have come to represent an increasingly large percentage of automotive components.

The automobile assembly plant represents only the final phase in the process of manufacturing an automobile, for it is here that the components supplied by more than 4,000 outside suppliers, including company-owned parts suppliers, are brought together for assembly, usually by truck or railroad. Those parts that will be used in the chassis are delivered to one area, while those that will comprise the body are unloaded at another.


Introducing a new model of automobile generally takes three to five years from inception to assembly. With the help of computer-aided design equipment, designers develop basic concept drawings that help them visualize the proposed vehicle’s appearance. Based on this simulation, they then construct clay models that can be studied by styling experts familiar with what the public is likely to accept. Aerodynamic engineers also review the models, studying air-flow parameters and doing feasibility studies on crash tests. Only after all models have been reviewed and accepted are tool designers permitted to begin building the tools that will manufacture the component parts of the new model.

Assembly Process

There are three main assembly lines, trim, chassis and body drop. On the first the body panels are welded together, the doors and windows are installed, and the body is painted and trimmed (with upholstery, interior hardware, and wiring). On the second line the frame has the springs, wheels, steering gear, and power train (engine, transmission, drive shaft, and differential) installed, plus the brakes and exhaust system. The two lines merge at the point at which the car is finished except for minor items and necessary testing and inspection. A variation on this process is “unitized” construction, whereby the body and frame are assembled as a unit. In this system the undercarriage still goes down the chassis line for the power train, front suspension, and rear axle, to be supported on pedestals until they are joined to the unitized body structure. Most passenger vehicles today are manufactured by the unitized method, and most trucks and commercial vehicles still employ a separate frame.

Press Shop

This is where the production process starts, with most of the Metal parts getting pressed out of Steel Sheets. The door panels, Roof, Bonnet, Boot Lid etc. are typically pressed in to form the basic structure of the automobile. The pressing process is a multi-step process where the sheets are pressed into shape in stages.

Weld Shop

The Weld shop is typically the place where the automobile is born. The point of birth for most design cars is where the Underbody takes shape from the Pressed parts. It can be the marriage of the Underbody front & rear or in some cases the entire underbody can be a single pressed unit. In stages, the Side panels, the roof are then welded to the underbody and the automobile begins to take its shape. The welding process is typically Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding, mostly done by Robots and is a treat to watch, wherein you have all these multi axis robotic arms work in unison and utmost precision.


The chassis of the car is the baseline component. All other parts are integrated on, or within the chassis. The typical car or truck is constructed from the ground up (and out). The frame is the main structural member to which all other mechanical chassis parts and the body are assembled to make a complete vehicle. The frame forms the base on which the body rests and from which all subsequent assembly components follow. The frame is placed on the assembly line and clamped to the conveyer to prevent shifting as it moves down the line. From here the automobile frame moves to component assembly areas where parts that are sequentially applied to the chassis include the engine, complete front and rear suspensions, gas tanks, rear axles, rear-end and half-shafts, transmission, and drive shafts, gear boxes, steering box components, wheel drums, and braking systems are sequentially installed.

An off-line operation at this stage of production mates the vehicle’s engine with its transmission. Workers use robotic arms to install these heavy components inside the engine compartment of the frame. After the engine and transmission are installed, a worker attaches the radiator, and another bolts it into place. Because of the nature of these heavy component parts, articulating robots perform all of the lift and carry operations while assemblers using pneumatic wrenches bolt component pieces in place. Careful ergonomic studies of every assembly task have provided assembly workers with the safest and most efficient tools available.


Generally, the floor pan is the largest body component to which a multitude of panels and braces will subsequently be either welded or bolted. As it moves down the assembly line, held in place by clamping fixtures, the shell of the vehicle is built. First, the left and right quarter panels are manually disengaged from pre-staged shipping containers and placed onto the floor pan, where they are stabilized with positioning fixtures and welded.

The front and rear door pillars, roof, and body side panels are assembled in the same fashion. The shell of the automobile assembled in this section of the process lends itself to the use of robots because articulating arms can easily introduce various component braces and panels to the floor pan and perform a high number of weld operations in a time frame and with a degree of accuracy no human workers could ever approach. Robots can pick and load 200-pound (90.8 kilograms) roof panels and place them precisely in the proper weld position with tolerance variations held to within .001 of an inch. Moreover, robots can also tolerate the smoke, weld flashes, and gases created during this phase of production.

The body is built up on a separate assembly line from the chassis. Operators perform most of the welding on the various panels and bolt the parts together. During welding, component pieces are held securely in a jig while welding operations are performed. Once the body shell is complete, it is attached to an overhead conveyor for the painting process. The multi-step painting process entails inspection, cleaning, undercoat (electrostatically applied) dipping, drying, topcoat spraying, and baking.

As the body moves from the isolated weld area of the assembly line, subsequent body components including fully assembled doors, deck lids, hood panel, fenders, trunk lid, and bumper reinforcements are installed. Although robots help workers place these components onto the body shell, the workers provide the proper fit for most of the bolt-on functional parts using pneumatically assisted tools.

Paint Shop

The output of the Weld Shop is called as a BIW or a Body In White. These are the cabs that enter into the Paint Shop. The painting process is one of the most complex and cleanest of process. The Paint booths for example have to be completely dust free. The various sub-process in the Paint Shop include

(a) Pre-treatment where the BIW is dipped into an electrolyte solution which would help in better paint deposition on the Metal.

(b) Sealant: Prior to the application of paint, the BIWs enter the sealant area where the sealant is applied.

(c) Paint Booths: The BIWs enter the paint booths, for the final painting process. This is typically an area where it is mostly robots again which do the job, or you would need highly skilled human workforce. A highly clean environment is maintained and access is limited and if at all, it has to be with wearing the right kind of overalls.

(d) Oven: The painted bodies are then passed through the oven where the final baking process of the Paint takes place.

(e) Wax Booths: Where application of a fine layer of wax takes place. This is sometimes skipped for some local market vehicles or the lower variants.

(f) Polishing: One of the most laborious processes and the most time consuming one as well. Each of the cars are polished to give the right shine and gleam. A simple rule of thumb, the longer and more elaborate the Polishing process, the better is the shine. So the costlier the car, the longer would have been the polishing done on it.

Prior to painting, the body must pass through a rigorous inspection process, the body in white operation. The shell of the vehicle passes through a brightly lit white room where it is fully wiped down by visual inspectors using cloths soaked in hi-light oil. Under the lights, this oil allows inspectors to see any defects in the sheet metal body panels. Dings, dents, and any other defects are repaired right on the line by skilled body repairmen. After the shell has been fully inspected and repaired, the assembly conveyor carries it through a cleaning station where it is immersed and cleaned of all residual oil, dirt, and contaminants.

As the shell exits the cleaning station it goes through a drying booth and then through an undercoat dip—an electrostatically charged bath of undercoat paint (called the E-coat) that covers every nook and cranny of the body shell, both inside and out, with primer. This coat acts as a substrate surface to which the top coat of colored paint adheres.

After the E-coat bath, the shell is again dried in a booth as it proceeds on to the final paint operation. In most automobile assembly plants today, vehicle bodies are spray-painted by robots that have been programmed to apply the exact amounts of paint to just the right areas for just the right length of time.

Once the shell has been fully covered with a base coat of color paint and a clear top coat, the conveyor transfers the bodies through baking ovens where the paint is cured at temperatures exceeding 275 degrees Fahrenheit (135 degrees Celsius).

The body and chassis assemblies are mated near the end of the production process. Robotic arms lift the body shell onto the chassis frame, where human workers then bolt the two together. After final components are installed, the vehicle is driven off the assembly line to a quality checkpoint.

After the shell leaves the paint area it is ready for interior assembly.

Interior assembly

After the structure is entirely painted, painted shell proceeds through the interior assembly area where workers assemble all of the instrumentation and wiring systems, dash panels, interior lights, seats, door and trim panels, headliners, radios, speakers, all glass except the automobile windshield, steering column and wheel, body weather strips, vinyl tops, brake and gas pedals, carpeting, and front and rear bumper fascias.

Next, robots equipped with suction cups remove the windshield from a shipping container, apply a bead of urethane sealer to the perimeter of the glass, and then place it into the body windshield frame. Robots also pick seats and trim panels and transport them to the vehicle for the ease and efficiency of the assembly operator. After passing through this section the shell is given a water test to ensure the proper fit of door panels, glass, and weather stripping. It is now ready to mate with the chassis.

Chassis/Body Mating- Body Drop Stage

The chassis assembly conveyor and the body shell conveyor meet at this stage of production. As the chassis passes the body conveyor the shell is robotically lifted from its conveyor fixtures and placed onto the car frame. Again, this process is executed via computer and control machines (C&C) to ensure speed, and perfect the fit between the body assembly and the chassis. Assembly workers, some at ground level and some in work pits beneath the conveyor, bolt the car body to the frame. Once the mating takes place the automobile proceeds down the line to receive final trim components, battery, tires, anti-freeze, and gasoline.

The vehicle can now be started. From here it is driven to a checkpoint off the line, where its engine is audited, its lights and horn checked, its tires balanced, and its charging system examined. Any defects discovered at this stage require that the car be taken to a central repair area, usually located near the end of the line. A crew of skilled trouble-shooters at this stage analyzes and repairs all problems. When the vehicle passes final audit it is given a price label and driven to a staging and waiting line for transportation to its final dealer destination.

Quality Control

All of the components that go into the automobile are produced at other sites. This means the thousands of component pieces that comprise the car must be manufactured, tested, packaged, and shipped to the assembly plants, often on the same day they will be used. This requires no small amount of planning. To accomplish it, most automobile manufacturers require outside parts vendors to subject their component parts to rigorous testing and inspection audits similar to those used by the assembly plants. In this way the assembly plants can anticipate that the products arriving at their receiving docks are Statistical Process Control (SPC) approved and free from defects.

Once the component parts of the automobile begin to be assembled at the automotive factory, production control specialists can follow the progress of each embryonic automobile by means of its Vehicle Identification Number (VIN), assigned at the start of the production line. In many of the more advanced assembly plants a small radio frequency transponder is attached to the chassis and floor pan. This sending unit carries the VIN information and monitors its progress along the assembly process. Knowing what operations the vehicle has been through, where it is going, and when it should arrive at the next assembly station gives production management personnel the ability to electronically control the manufacturing sequence. Throughout the assembly process quality audit stations keep track of vital information concerning the integrity of various functional components of the vehicle.

This idea comes from a change in quality control ideology over the years. Formerly, quality control was seen as a final inspection process that sought to discover defects only after the vehicle was built. In contrast, today quality is seen as a process built right into the design of the vehicle as well as the assembly process. In this way assembly operators can stop the conveyor if workers find a defect. Corrections can then be made, or supplies checked to determine whether an entire batch of components is bad. Vehicle recalls are costly and manufacturers do everything possible to ensure the integrity of their product before it is shipped to the customer. After the vehicle is assembled a validation process is conducted at the end of the assembly line to verify quality audits from the various inspection points throughout the assembly process. This final audit tests for properly fitting panels; dynamics; squeaks and rattles; functioning electrical components; and engine, chassis, and wheel alignment. In many assembly plants vehicles are periodically pulled from the audit line and given full functional tests. All efforts today are put forth to ensure that quality and reliability are built into the assembled product.

Interesting improvement projects are described in this report.

Sunday, March 23, 2014

Engineering Materials and Properties - Index to Collection

Grey cast iron

Muntz Metal
Muntz metal is also called Yellow Metal. It is an alloy brass consisting of 60 percent copper and 40 percent zinc, named after the English businessman George F. Muntz, who patented it in 1832. Muntz metal must be worked hot. It is used to make machine parts that require resistance to corrosion.

Wikipedia articles on Alloys of Various Metals - Index



Top 10 articles from Materials News January 2014

1.Simple way to increase polymer's solar cell efficiency by 30 percent
2.Targeted drug delivery - the right time and place
3.Bio-inspiration for growing graphene
4.Novel exfoliation method for molybdenum disulfide
5.Flexible materials to manipulate sound and light
6.New anode quadruples life of lithium-sulfur battery
7.The search for 'cheapium'
8.Thinner and more flexible electronics than ever before
9.Cooling with carbon nanotubes
10.An alternative way to allocate science funding


The page now has top 10 articles from February 2014

Monday, March 3, 2014

Making a Car

A car has anywhere from 10,000 to 20,000 individual components.


2. Making the Car. Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the United States, 1987.

3. Mortimer, J., ed. Advanced Manufacturing in the Automotive Industry. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 1987.

4. Mortimer, John. Advanced Manufacturing in the Automotive Industry. Air Science Co., 1986.

5. Seiffert, Ulrich. Automobile Technology of the Future. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 1991.

6.How to Paint Your Car: Bk. M2583 By Dennis W. Parks, David H. Jacobs, Jr., David H. Jacobs

7. Popular Mechanics Complete Car Care Manual: Updated & Expanded By The Editors of Popular Mechanics, 2005
(2008 edition published - HEARST BOOKS)

8.How to Design Cars Like a Pro: A Comprehensive Guide to Car Design from the ... By Tony Lewin, Ryan Borroff, 2003

9. Complete Idiot's Guide to Car Care and Repair Illustrated: Illustrated By Dan Ramsey (Over 300 two-color step-by-step illustrations to aid readers in the most common repairs and maintenance procedures.-- Most competitive books focus primarily on older vehicles.)

10. Advanced automotive technology: visions of a super-efficient family car. (Full view on google books),M1

11. Engineer to Win: The Essential Guide to Racing Car Materials Technology Or ... By Carroll Smith, 1985

12.The Essential Hybrid Car Handbook: A Buyer's Guide By Nick Yost, David Friedman, 2006, 160 pages

13. A Solar Car Primer By Eric F. Thacher, 2003

14. Concept Car Design: Driving the Dream By Jonathan Bell

15. The Chariot Makers: Assembling the Perfect Formula 1 Car By Steve Matchett

16. How to Build a Cheap Sports Car By Keith Tanner

17. The Car Design Yearbook 1: The Definitive Guide to New Concept and ... By Stephen Newbury

18.The Art of American Car Design: The Profession and Personalities : "not ... By C. Edson Armi



CNC Milling Machine - Description and Operating Instructions

Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Milling is the most common form of CNC. CNC Mills are classified according to the number of axes that they possess. Axes are labeled as x and y for horizontal movement, and z for vertical movement, as shown in this view of a manual mill table.

Normal 4 axes

Table x.
Table y.
Table z.
Milling Head z.

 A five-axis CNC milling machine has an extra axis in the form of a horizontal pivot for the milling head. his allows extra flexibility for machining with the end mill at an angle with respect to the table. A six-axis CNC milling machine would have another horizontal pivot for the milling head, this time perpendicular to the fifth axis.

CNC Milling Machine Sketch

CNC Milling Machine


CNC Milling Machines available with Ford Aerospace - August 2011

Bridgeport XR 5 axis machine - brochure

10 things beginning CNC Milling users Need to succeed

Engine and Engine Related Parts - Car


Engine ASM 1 Ford Racing Performance Parts
Intake Manifold 1 Tony D. Branda Mustang and Shelby Parts
Carburetor 1 CDC
FEAD (Single V-belt Pulley System) 1 CDC
Voltage Regulator
1 AMK Fasteners
D2 1 AMK Fasteners
Alternator Pulley
H AMK Fasteners
Alternator Fan AAF-10 AMK Fasteners
Alternator Nut & Washer F-644 AMK Fasteners
Alternator Spacer B-10954 AMK Fasteners
By Pass Hose C7OZ 8597A 1 CDC
Housing Thermostat
C5OE 8592
A 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Thermostat RT 351 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Gasket Thermostat Housing
C5AZ 8255
A 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Fan Blade Cooling M3531 1 Dynacorn Bodies International
Mounts Engine Ron Morris Performance
Oil Pan M3586 1 Dynacorn Bodies International
Coil Mounting Bracket
C4DZ 12043
A 1 Scott Drake Reproductions

Engine ASM 1    -        Ford Racing Performance Parts
How the components and engine are tested

Car Engine Parts Pictures

Engine Remanufacturing and Energy Savings - 2010



EPDM Rubber

EPDM rubber (ethylene propylene diene monomer (M-class) rubber) is a type of synthetic rubber. It is an elastomer which is characterized by a wide range of applications. The M refers to its classification in ASTM standard D-1418; the M class includes rubbers having a saturated chain of the polymethylene type.

The main properties of EPDM are its outstanding heat, ozone and weather resistance. The resistance to polar substances and steam are also good. It has excellent electrical insulating properties. It has good resistance to ketones, ordinary diluted acids and alkalines.

EPDM is used in glass-run channels, radiators, garden and appliance hose, tubing, pond liners, washers, belts, electrical insulation, vibrators, O-rings, solar panel heat collectors and speaker cone surrounds. ( I came across reference to this material in a value engineering project related to radiators in Ashok Leyland vehicles)

 Dienes currently used in the manufacture of EPDM rubbers are dicyclopentadiene (DCPD), ethylidene norbornene (ENB), and vinyl norbornene (VNB). EPDM rubber is closely related to ethylene propylene rubber (ethylene propylene rubber is a copolymer of ethylene and propylene whereas EPDM rubber is a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene and a diene-component).

EPDM O'rings

Engine Compartment Parts - Car

Engine Compartment Parts

Radiator 338-4 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Cap Chrome Radiator
CC 1 Alloy Metal Products
Drain Petcock 8A 8115 A 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Upper Radiator Mounting Bracket Kit
C7ZZ 8A193
A 1 pr Scott Drake Reproductions
Lower Radiator Mounting Bracket Kit
C8ZZ 8052
A 1 pr Scott Drake Reproductions
Radiator Mounting Insulators
C7OZ 8124
A 1 pr Scott Drake Reproductions
Radiator Mounting Insulators
C8ZZ 8125
A 1 pr Scott Drake Reproductions
Shroud Fan
C9OZ 8146
A 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Radiator Hoses Upper / Lower
8260/86 A 1 pr Scott Drake Reproductions
Radiator Hose Clamps Concours
C5ZZ 8287
BK 4 Scott Drake Reproductions
Accelerator Pivot ASM 3621 1 Dynacorn Bodies International
Heater Hose Kit C5ZZ 18472
WK 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Battery Tray M3535 1 Dynacorn Bodies International
Battery Hold Down Clamp M3537 1 Dynacorn Bodies International
Battery J-Bolt w/ 4 Nuts M3537A 1 pr Dynacorn Bodies International
Windshield Washer Reservoir (17618-2B) 1 Alloy Metal Products
Windshield Washer Hose Set
C7ZZ 17601
/ 5 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Shock Tower Caps 3631D 2 Dynacorn Bodies International
Outer Shock Tower LH 3630K 1 Dynacorn Bodies International
Outer Shock Tower RH 3630J 1 Dynacorn Bodies International
Misc. Ford logo chrome plated fasteners Mult. Gardner-Westcott Company
Rad. Support to Hood Bumper Pair M3510 1 pr Dynacorn Bodies International

How car cooling system works


Automotive cooling system design

High efficiency radiator design - 2007

Fuel System Components - Car

Fuel Systems

Fuel Tank 16 Gallon w/ Drain TO2 1 Dynacorn Bodies International

Sending Unit Fuel Tank TO3 1 Dynacorn Bodies International

Fuel Tank Mounting Kit

C5ZZ 9002
MK 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Sending Unit Mounting Gasket
COAF 9276
A 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Fuel Line - Tank To Engine - Stainless Steel MLG009S 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Fuel and Brake Line Installation Kit 380374 MK 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Grommet - Fuel Line to Fender Apron C7ZZ 9288 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Fuel Line - Pump to Carb. - Stainless Steel MGL010S 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Fuel Hose Kit - Rubber C7ZZ 9327
A 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Fuel Filter D3AZ 9155
C 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Accelerator Spring Bracket C5ZZ 9741
C 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Accelerator Return Spring C5ZZ 9737
B 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Accelerator Rod - Chrome C5ZZ 9A702
C 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Accelerator Hardware Kit C5ZZ 9A702
MK 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Accelerator Rod Grommet C6OZ 9793
A 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Fuel Filler Neck TO1B 1 Dynacorn Bodies International
Fuel Filler Hose TO1E 1 Dynacorn Bodies International
Fuel Filler Neck To Rear Panel Gasket M-9076-A 1 Larry's Thunderbird and Mustang Parts
Fuel Filler Installation Kit KIT 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Pop Open Fuel Filler Cap - GT
C7ZZ 9030
B 1 Scott Drake Reproductions

Fuel Tank

Life Cycle Design of a Fuel Tank System
1998 Project

Fuel tank design and optimization for electric vehicles - 7 gallong fuel tank

Exhaust System - Car

Exhaust System

Headers 1 Ford Powertrain Applications
Gasket Header Flange 2 Ford Powertrain Applications
Exhaust System 1 Flowmaster
Exhaust Installation / Custom Fabrication 1 Great Lakes Customs
Exhaust Tips M 5255 E 2 cdc


How do exhaust headers work to improve engine performance?

Exhaust Header Explained


Transmission System Components - Car


Cross Member Frame 1 CDC
Transmission Tremec 5 Speed 1 D&D Performance.
31 Spline - 1330 Driveshaft Yoke D&D Performance.
T-5 Shift Lever C5ZZ 721 T 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
T-5 Shift Knob E7ZZ 7213
T5 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Shifter Boot C5ZZ 7277
B 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Shift Boot Retainer - Satin C4ZB 7262
S 1 Scott Drake Reproductions

Cross Member Frame
A crossmember is a structural section, usually of steel, usually boxed, that is bolted across the underside of a monocoque / unibody motor vehicle, to support the internal combustion engine and / or transmission. For the suspension of any car to operate as it should, for proper handling, and to keep the body panels in alignment, the frame has to be strong enough to cope with the loads applied to it. It must not deflect, and it has to have enough torsional strength to resist twisting.

Transmission Tremec 5 Speed



31 Spline - 1330 Driveshaft Yoke

Clutch Parts of Car


Pedal ASM / Hardware 1 CDC

Clutch Cable Conversion Kit 1 Total Performance

Bellhousing M 6392 R58 1 Ford Racing Performance Parts

Flywheel M 6375 C302 1 Ford Racing Performance Parts

Flywheel Bolts M 4216 A210 1 Ford Racing Performance Parts
Clutch Kit
M 7560
C302N 1 Ford Racing Performance Parts
Clutch Dowel and Bolt Kit
M 6397
A302 1 Ford Racing Performance Parts
Pilot Bearing M 7600 A 1 Ford Racing Performance Parts
Clutch Fork M 7515 A 1 Ford Racing Performance Parts

See the article How a Clutches Work?





Flywheel M 6375 C302 1 Ford Racing Performance Parts  made from billet steel

Car Hardware Kits

Fasteners / Hardware
Master Body Bolt Kit   67Z-M 1 AMK Fasteners
1970 302 Engine Bolt Kit      70O-SBS 1 AMK Fasteners
Underhood Kit     67Z-XU 1 AMK Fasteners
Master Chassis Kit     67Z-DCSB 1 AMK Fasteners
Brake & Fuel Line Junior Kit    67Z-BF81 1 AMK Fasteners
1967 Deluxe Fastback Interior Master Kit     67Z-63B 1 AMK Fasteners
Wiring Clip Kit     67Z-WC 1 AMK Fasteners

Master Body Bolt Kit   67Z-M 1 AMK Fasteners

The authentic hardware you need to  properly reassemble your car’s sheetmetal in one package !

67Z-M 1967 Mustang Black Phos All            362   items               $ 199

Car - Miscellaneous Items

1967 Ford Mustang

1967 Ford Mustang License Plate Frame     C7ZZ 13409 2 Scott Drake Reproductions
License Plate Dust Shield     C7ZZ   6540427 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
License Plate Bumpers      37838S 2 CDC
Owners Manual               OM-67 1 Scott Drake Reproductions
Owners Manual Wallet          ACC-OMW 1 Scott Drake Reproductions

Decals Used in a Car

A decal  or transfer is a plastic, cloth, paper or ceramic substrate that has printed on it a pattern or image that can be moved to another surface upon contact, usually with the aid of heat or water. The word is short for decalcomania,

Decals are commonly used on hot rod automobiles and plastic models.
Government agencies of all types also use decals on vehicles for identification. These decals are referred to as fleet markings and are required by law on all fire and law enforcement vehicles in the US. Most fleet markings are created from reflective vinyl with an adhesive backing that is applied in a peel-and-stick manner.


Decals / Tags
Autolite Air Cleaner Decal      DF 0160 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Boss 302 Air Cleaner Decal   DF 1042 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Service Specification decal     DF 0052 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Battery Test Decal                 DF 0194 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Autolite Battery Tag               DF 0784 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Autolite Positive Terminal Decal DF 1520 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
1967 Disc Brake Master Cylinder Decal DF 0332 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Coil Decal DF 0224 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Coil Wire Decal DF 1541 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Voltage Regulator Decal DF 0348 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Voltage Regulator Warning Decal DF 0320 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Starter Decal DF 0499 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Autolite Fuel Filter Decal DF 0886 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
FOMOCO Antifreeze Tag DF 0120 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Glove Box Tire Pressure Decal DF 0282 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
New Car Window Sticker DF 0124 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
1967 Assembly Line Build Sheet DF 1384 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Visor Instruction Decal DF 0655 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Jack Instruction Decal DF 0371 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Jack Decal DF 0036 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions
Gravel Pan Tie Down Decal DF 0284 1 Jim Osborn Reproductions

CNC Milling Machine Work - Columbia University Videos

The exercise for the students is making a name plate of each student on cnc milling machine. The machine used is 3 axis machine.

Aluminium block is the material used.

Part 1 Safety instructions


Part 2

A jig is used.


General Workholding Devices

Clamps and abutments;
Face plates.

Vices are used in  a number of machining processes including milling, drilling, shaping and planing among others. These can be elementary devices consisting of a pair of jaws, a screw mechanism and a body.
A variety of jaw shapes can be used with vices. The jaws themselves can be hydraulically actuated, although a hand screw is used to move the jaws to the workpiece and the hydraulics used only to provide the clamping force.

Clamps and abutments
The use of clamps is by far the simplest and cheapest of workholding devices. The workpiece is clamped directly to the machine table and typical applications include processes such as milling, drilling, shaping and planing. Abutments are simply locating blocks attached to the machine table to prevent the workpiece moving due to the cutting forces.

 Chucks are generally used for processes that involve rotational motion. The typical applications for chucks include turning, boring, drilling and grinding. There is a huge variety of chucks available from small
drill chucks to huge lathe chucks. The most common chucks are three-jaw chucks, which are generally self-centring, that is, all jaws move simultaneously when adjusted. Four-jaw chucks are also used and the jaws on these can be adjusted individually and can therefore be used to hold odd shapes as
well as square and rectangular shapes. They are also generally used for larger and heavier workpieces as they are of heavier construction. The jaws can be manually operated or pneumatically or hydraulically operated in the case of power chucks. The type of chuck used primarily depends on the production equipment being used, the workpiece size and the cutting forces involved.

Collets are primarily used for round workpieces and tools and typical applications include turning and boring. They can also be used for use with square or hexagonal workpieces. It is basically a longitudinally split tapered bushing. There are two basic types of collet and these are: a draw-back collet, where it is pulled into the spindle, or a push-out collet, where it is pushed into the spindle by mechanical means. Collets are generally used for workpieces with small diameters, typically less than 25 mm.

The main advantage of a collet when compared to a chuck is that it grips nearly all of the circumference of the workpiece.

These are used with lathes and is the method of workholding from which the centre lathe gets its name. The centres themselves are basically tempered shanks located in taper sockets and are generally used for long workpieces or when axial alignment is crucial.

Mandrels are generally used in conjunction with centres. The mandrel is placed inside tubular workpieces and generally mounted between two centres. They are generally used with turning when the entire cylindrical surface requires to be machined or both ends require to be machined. There are three basic types of mandrel, namely the solid mandrel, the gang mandrel and a
cone mandrel.

Face plates
Face plates are generally used in turning and boring to turn a diameter which is perpendicular to an existing datum surface. They are round plates with an arrangement of slots and holes used to clamp the workpiece to it. This means that irregular shaped workpieces can be machined and the arrangement may sometimes
require to be balanced.

Part of Process Planning Articles

Process Planning by Peter Scallan

Sunday, March 2, 2014

University of California - Irvine - Advanced Manufacturing Choices Course Part 1 - Videos

Marc J. Madou

Lecture 1 Introduction

Recorded on 1 April 2013


The course helps students to bring back advanced manufacturing to USA.

3D Printing

This is the first year we are doing it.


Energy used in manufacturing

Mechanical - cutting
Electrical  - like welding - Electron discharge machining (EDM)
Heat - laser
Chemical - electrochemical machining

Subtractive techniques
Additive techniques

When you are working on materials with diameter less than 100 microns, we use lithography.

1. Difference between serial, batch and continuous processes
2. Relative versus absolute tolerances

Atomic force microscope

only 1292 video views are there. Good lectures but many do not know them.

Tuesday, February 4, 2014

Alloys of Aluminium

Designations for Wrought and Cast Aluminium Alloys
The main alloying elements are copper, zinc, magnesium, silicon, manganese and lithium. Small additions of chromium, titanium, zirconium, lead, bismuth and nickel are also made and iron is invariably present in small quantities. There are over 300 wrought alloys with 50 in common use. They are normally identified by a four figure system which originated in the USA and is now universally accepted.

Wikipedia Index



Aluminium Alloys Presentation

How to Select Material?

How to Select the Right Stainless Steel or High Temperature Alloy for Heading

“How to select insulation material and on what basis a decision
is made concerning material selection and costs”

How to Select Material for Custom Rubber Products - Timco Rubber

Muntz Metal

Muntz metal is also called Yellow Metal. It is an alloy brass consisting of 60 percent copper and 40 percent zinc, named after the English businessman George F. Muntz, who patented it in 1832. Muntz metal must be worked hot. It is used to make machine parts that require resistance to corrosion.

Composition of Muntz Metal

Leaded Muntz Metal

Composition and Physical properties of alloys

Metals and Standard Metal Products - Price Comparison Information

American Metal Market provides price information on 1400 industrial materials. Metal prices page


A Big discussion paper on metal prices with some theoretical ideas like
Fact One: Global determinants of prices do not dominate market-specific
• Fact Two (in its simplest form): The relative price of a metal is inversely
proportional to its relative volume of production. If, for example, global
iron ore production expands 10 percent faster than the average for all
metals, then its price falls by 10 percent.
• Fact Three: Metal prices exhibit well-defined short-term cycles that tend
to repeat themselves
LME prices

Relative Metal Costs - Updated with 2010 prices

Steel Price List
Supersteel Australia

Friday, January 31, 2014

Manufacturing Processes - New Developments - 2014

Google Link "Manufacturing Process"


Cambashi, a leading global industry analyst and market consulting firm, today announced that the firm has been named one of the Top 20 Most Promising Manufacturing Consulting Companies of 2013 by CIO Review magazine, a leading technology publication that shares innovative enterprise solutions and is a neutral source for technology decision makers.

Potash Cooling

IBM researchers just built the best graphene-based circuit yet: it sends text messages

Fibreglass production process

3D printing supports GM’s global team and vehicles

 A team of 15 elite technicians generate over 20,000 parts each year.
 The first process is called Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and it uses a laser to scan a pattern of powered plastic material and then fuses it together. The second process is called Stereo Lithography Apparatus (SLA) and it uses a liquid resin that the lasers cure into a solid as they scan.

Research to Expand the Range of Nature’s Catalysts for Industrial Applications
NSF Awards $1.7 Million Grant to Rensselaer Researcher George Makhatadze
In paper manufacturing, the process must break down cellulose (chunks of wood pulp) using large amounts of energy and toxic chemicals like chlorine. Nature performs the same task using enzymes, non-toxic biodegradable proteins that accelerate chemical reactions using far less energy. But the enzymes required for the paper job, xylanases, doesn’t hold up to the high temperatures of the manufacturing process

George Makhatadze, a chaired professor in the Biocomputation and Bioinformatics research constellation, professor of biological sciences, and member of the Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies (CBIS) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute wants to investigate the question. “Can we take an existing protein and, using computation, redesign it to withstand higher temperatures?”

Now, with the support of a five-year, $1.7 million National Science Foundation grant, Makhatadze will investigate the speed of protein folding.

Development of UV digestion unit for natural rubber latex preparation before the determination of
phosphorus residue with artificial neural network-digital image-based colorimetry

Manufacturing Process of Biscuits

Process of Making a Polo T Shirt

Cold drawn seamless steel tubes - Mfg process

Ball Manufacturing

Production of Float Glass

Precision Steel Tubes - Manufacturing Processes

Coated Abrasives - Manufacturing Process

Ball Bearings Manufacturing Process

Glass Manufacturing Process

Stainless steel Manufacturing Process

Lecithin Manufacturing Process

Process Manufacturing Software Comparison Source

Technology and Manufacturing Process Selection
The Product Life Cycle Perspective
Series: Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing
Henriques, Elsa; Pecas, Paulo; Silva, Arlindo (Eds.)
2014, XII, 325 p. 135 illus. 107.09 Euro

Battery Manufacturing Process
Optimizing Battery Manufacturing with Totally Integrated Automation

Activated Carbon Manufacturing Process


CAI (Computer Aided Inspection) as an Accelerator for the Additive Manufacturing Process

Carbon Fibre Manufacturing Process for Bikes

SMIC Offers Differentiated 0.13um Low-Leakage Embedded Flash Manufacturing Process
Provides Lower Costs, Better Performance and Greater Endurance

Krzysztof Drozdowski, Arkadiusz Tofil, Andrzej Gontarz, Zbigniew Pater, Janusz Tomczak, (2013) "Manufacturing process of plane rim from aluminium alloy", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 85 Iss: 6, pp.487 - 492

3D manufacturing at the Speed of Light


Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUV) has been pegged as the most likely replacement for current 193nm technology, but repeated problems with ramping EUV have left it stalled on the runway. Now, for the first time, foundry technology developer ASML,  believes it has cleared some of the hurdles between it and widespread EUV commercialization. The company predicts EUV technology could be ready for ramp by 2015.

Metal Extrusion Process Explained

Clean -Energy Manufacturing Projects Funding

New form of manufacturing technology that has the potential to reduce costs and delivery time for sheet metal parts needed in smaller quantities.
The development is based on Ford Freeform Fabrication Technology (F3T), a patented manufacturing process developed at the Ford Research and Innovation Center. In this process, a piece of sheet metal is clamped around its edges and formed into a 3D shape by two stylus-type tools working in unison on opposite sides of the sheet metal blank. Based on the CAD data of a part are received, computer-generated tool paths control the F3T machine to form the sheet metal part into its final shape to the required dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

Video uploaded by Ford Video1


Wire rope manufacturing

Manufacturing Process Selection Handbook

Manufacturing Processes Course materials - NPTEL - IIT Kharagpur

Maximizing the Manufacturing Process with an Injection Press
Minimize the overall costs of your customer’s project with the addition of a press.

Thursday, January 30, 2014

Ford Strategy for Product Portfolio - 2014

Platform consolidation and efficiency metrics

As part of the company’s move to build efficiency into everything it does, reducing the number of platforms has been a top priority for Ford

“Reducing our platform count allows us to gain efficiencies of scale across the business.”  Ford has moved from using 27 vehicle platforms in 2007 to using only 15 in 2014 and it has  plans to reduce this number down to only nine platforms at some point in the future.

Those nine global core platforms include the B-platform Ford Fiesta, C-platform Ford Focus, C/D-platform Ford Fusion, sports car segment Ford Mustang, D-platform Ford Explorer, light truck platform Ford Ranger, full-size pickup Ford F-150, Ford Super Duty pickups and the full-size van platform utilized by the Ford Transit.

These platforms accounted for 80 percent of the business volume in 2013 and that many of these have had great success of late. Fiesta is the best-selling sub-compact in the world, while the Ford Focus continues to be the best-selling nameplate in the world. The F-150 held onto its best-selling truck status in the United States for the 37th-consecutive year and commercial vans continue to show growth with 475,000 sold globally in 2013.

It is important to maintain the freshness of the company’s product offerings and that 2014 will be an important year for Ford with the launch of 23 new or refreshed vehicles across the globe.

From Fiesta, Focus, and the all-new Fusion, our global sedans deliver style, strength and safety with driving dynamics that turn casual drivers into enthusiasts.

2013 Ford Shelby GT500
For North America, Ford has upgraded the full-size 2013 Taurus, adding increased power and fuel efficiency. The 2013 Ford Shelby GT500 has also debuted as the most powerful production V8 in the world.

Ford has the freshest car portfolio in the auto industry.

Sparking the F-150’s continued success is the powerful and fuel-efficient 3.5-liter EcoBoost engine, which now accounts for more than 40 percent of F-150 retail sales, exceeding 100,000 sales in less than one year on the market. Ford F-Series continues its legacy of leadership in the United States as the best-selling truck for 35 consecutive years, and the best-selling vehicle for 30 years.

2013 Ford SVT Raptor
The all-new global Ford Ranger has come to market, combining the toughness and capability of a pickup with smart technology, excellent fuel economy and high standards of safety, quality and comfort. Ranger will be manufactured on three continents and sold in 180 markets, making it one of the farthest-reaching Ford vehicles in the world.

Also new in the world of Ford trucks is the North American Transit van, which in 2013 will replace the celebrated Econoline wagon and van in North America. The Transit’s forerunner is currently available in Europe. The Transit will soon be available in North America, as well, with the same 3.5-liter EcoBoost engine as the F-150 and fuel economy 25 percent better than that of comparable Econoline vans.

Utility Vehicles
The new EcoSport is already expanding Ford’s global presence in growth markets such as Brazil and the Asia Pacific region.

Ford EcoSport
The all-new Escape/Kuga arrived globally in 2012. This brand new model of America’s best-selling SUV features 11 new exclusive features, with fuel economy projected to top any vehicle of its kind on today’s market.

The reinvented Explorer entered the 2012 model year with an expanded color palette and all-new Ford EcoBoost four-cylinder engine, delivering class-leading fuel economy and responsive performance. The Edge and Flex were refreshed, as well.


Ford CEO Alan Mulally has outlined plans to boost the carmaker’s worldwide sales volumes by more than 50 percent by mid-decade, putting it close to parity with the industry’s top  two  GM and Toyota.

But Ford is lagging behind some key competitors, notably Volkswagen, for the past decade in Europe.
Mulally acknowledges that the new global goal will require the automaker to finally gain some real traction in Asia. But in China, GM holds a hefty 15 percent market share in China while Ford has  4 percent.

Mulally created a global entity. Key to that strategy, dubbed “One Ford,” is the consolidation of the Ford product portfolio. Rather than duplicate efforts from one market to another, Ford is focusing on products that can be built and sold around the world. By creating economies of scale, Ford can “can make up” for the lower margins made on vehicles.

Ford has counted on sales in North America to generate the lion’s share of its earnings to date, placing emphasis on big, profitable trucks like the full-size F-150 pickup.  Worldwide, Mulally’s new growth plan predicts that small cars and crossovers will account for 55 percent of Ford’s sales volume by 2020, up from 48 percent at present.
The carmaker is taking a multi-pronged approach. It is offering more features.  For example, when Ford reintroduced a new Taurus in 2010, the car featured a “cross-traffic alert system,” designed to detect oncoming vehicles when the car was backed out of a parking spot. The technology had only just debuted on the significantly more expensive BMW 7-Series.

Ford is also putting a premium on fuel efficiency. It  has proclaimed a goal of “being the best, or at least being among the very best, in terms of fuel economy, in every segment where we compete.”

But Ford has continued to lag as an also-ran in the hybrid segment, well behind Toyota, despite the steady rollout of new models like the Lincoln MKZ, which was notably the first product on the market that allowed buyers to choose either a conventional gasoline engine or an optional gas-electric powertrain at no additional cost. Ford hopes to break out  by launching five advanced electric vehicles, including a pure battery-electric version of the Focus, as well as both standard and plug-in hybrid versions of the upcoming C-Max microvan.
The C-Max will become the first dedicated hybrid model in the Ford vehicle line-up. The carmaker is hoping the distinctive shape and attributes of the new “people mover” will yield the same sort of brand halo that Toyota has gotten with its dedicated hybrid. With the addition of the C-Max Hybrid and plug-in C-Max Energi — as well as the Focus Electric and other new electrified offerings — Ford hopes to nearly triple sales of its battery-based vehicles to 100,000 a year by 2013.

2013 Ford Mondeo TITANIUM 2.0 TDCi - YouTube Video



Ford Mondeo Turnier 2.0 EcoBoost (240) Titanium S in 2013, the model with 5-door station wagon body and Line-4 1999 cm3 / 121.6 cui, 176.5 kW / 240 PS / 237 hp (ECE) 6-speed manual powertrain for Europe .